Anode material receiving increasing attention with expansion of LIB applications
As of 2011, more than 97% of LIB anode material consumption is occupied by graphite. Graphite has held its dominant position, since Sony succeeded in commercialization of LIB for the first time in 1991. Contrary to other materials that have undergone significant changes such as anode materials and separators, it has remained the same for last 20 years.
Graphite is largely classified into natural graphite and artificial graphite. Natural graphite occurs in the state where about 5-15% of graphite is contained. Graphite to be used as an LIB anode material, however, should have cell-grade purity, at least more than 99.5%. To increase purity, a process of eliminating impurities is to be carried out after separation and chemical treatment. In some times, it is processed into a spherical form and undergoes pith coating.
On the other hand, artificial graphite is a material produced by heating carbon precursors such as petroleum or coal tar cokes but minerals as starting materials at the high temperature of more than 2800C
Anode materials other than graphite are soft carbon and hard carbon, which are produced by carrying out heat treatment to cokes composed of carbon at a relatively low temperature of 1000~1200?? Especially hard carbon is increasing in importance due to its application to electric vehicles.
Among compound-based materials, LTO, one of oxide compounds, began to be adopted by Toshiba. Among metal compounds, a Sn-Co-C anode material is being adopted by Sony.
LIB anode materials should meet the following conditions.
- High charge/discharge capacity (per unit weight or unit volume)
- Low initial irreversible capacity loss
- Excellent charge/discharge cycle properties
- High electric conductivity and ion diffusion rates within active materials
- Less change in volume by intercalation/deintercalation of lithium
- Easy manufacturing process and low prices
It is graphite that meets the above conditions. New requirements for anode materials, however, are continuously being made for high capacity and high output LIB.
This report provides the technology trends of various types of anode materials, especially the recent trend focused on alloy and compound-based materials.
In addition, this report examines the current status of anode material production by manufacturer in Japan, China, Korea and other countries; 13 Japanese companies, 5 Chinese companies and 4 Korean companies.
Lastly, the consumer-side trend and the provider-side trend are provided based on pipelines by country, manufacturer, and type. In addition, the demand for the anode material market in the IT and EV market until 2015 is forecasted.
- World's first report specialized on anode materials for li-ion secondary cells
- Includes the up-to-date technology trends for alloy, and compound-based anode materials as well as graphite.
- Analysis on more than 20 anode material manufacturers in the world
- Detailed market analysis from 2009 to 2011
- 2012-2015 anode market forecast